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University of Portland Clark Library

APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Transition from 6th to 7th ed.

In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) released the 7th edition of their Publication Manual. The boxes below highlight the key differences between APA 6th edition and APA 7th edition citations.


  • Authors:
    • You should list up to 20 authors (instead of 7) for a single work.
    • APA 7th ed. provides more for including contributors other than authors and editors. For example, the host is included in a reference for a podcast or the writer and director in a reference for a TV episode.
    • For government publications, it's no longer required to include the agency hierarchy as the author. The agency providing the document is the author, and the top-level agency is the publisher.

  • Sources:
    • When citing journal articles, you always include the issue number.
    • Journal DOIs are formatted as a URL, e.g., The prefix "DOI:" is no longer necessary.
    • Publisher location is no longer included in book references.
    • URLs are no longer preceded by "Retrieved from," unless the item is subject to change and not archived, in which case you should note "Retrieved on [date] from [URL]."
    • The website name is listed (in title case without italics) in the source element. Web page titles that are the same as the authors are omitted.
    • For ebooks, the type (format, platform, or device) is no longer listed. Publisher is included.

In-Text Citations

  • The first in-text citation of a work by more than two authors may list only the first author, followed by “et al.”


  • The term "Running Head" should no longer be prefixed on the running head on the title page. For student papers, the page header consists of the page number only, unless your instructor requests something different.
  • The following acceptable fonts have been added in the 7th edition, in addition to Times New Roman 12pt: Arial 11pt, Calibri size 11pt,  Georgia 11pt, and Lucida Sans Unicode 10pt. 


  • Insert only one space after punctuation at the end of a sentence.


  • Guidelines are being added to use bias-free language (like "they" and "their" instead of "he" and "she").
  • Descriptive phrases are preferred over nouns to label people (like "people living in poverty" instead of "the poor"). | 503.943.7111 or 800.841.8261 | 5000 N. Willamette Blvd., Portland, OR 97203-5798
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