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University of Portland Clark Library

CST 107: Public Speaking for Change: In-Speech Citations

A Skeptical Audience

Cartoon image of a skeptical looking person

Anarres. A Cartoon Person. Digital image. openclipart. N.p., 30 Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Aug. 2015. <>

Why Should They Believe You?

Your audience has no reason to believe you!

It's your job to convince them that you are an authority on the subject of which you are speaking. You prove you know what you are talking about by citing your sources in your speech. Your sources demonstrate that you have done your research and that you are an expert on the subject.

Examples of In-Speech Citations

Note: Because every word counts in a speech, leave off the author's name(s) and concentrate on including the book, journal, or newspaper title.

Book: "According to 1001 things everyone should know about African-American history [by Jeffrey C. Stewart]..."

Journal: "In an article in the journal Space Debris [by John-Derral Mulholland and Christian Veillet]..."

Periodical/Newspaper: "The New York Times published a story about...."

How To: Citing Sources on a Slide

When citing your sources on a PowerPoint slide, provide a full citation rather than a long URL such as you might obtain from Google. For example, which citation is your audience more likely to read:


Gillis, J. (2015, November 28). Short answers to hard questions about climate change. New York Times. Retrieved from | 503.943.7111 or 800.841.8261 | 5000 N. Willamette Blvd., Portland, OR 97203-5798
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