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University of Portland Clark Library

FA 107: The Creative Process in Visual Art: AI Tools and Resources

ChatGPT and other LLMs

This is a brief overview of better known Large Language Models (LLMs) as of September 2023. Initially, they were available as free, beta versions but many are moving towards paid plans for improved versions. 

Ethical questions:

  • As these tools are monetized, are they creating more social inequities by favoring those who can afford to pay for access?
  • Do these tools protect privacy and intellectual property? For individuals, what do the Terms of Use or FAQs say? Is the default to use what you enter for their ongoing training, and potentially, in the output they provide to other users?

ChatGPT - free 
Developed by Open AI and built on GPT-3.5 which responds to text prompts.
Not connected to the Internet. Trained on Internet data only through September 2021.

ChatGPT Plus - monthly fee
Developed by Open AI and built on GPT-4 which can respond to image and text prompts.
Connected to the Internet 

Copilot (replaced Bing Chat) - free with a Microsoft account; Copilot Pro has a monthly fee.
Developed by Microsoft and built on GPT-4 
Connected to the Internet 
Only officially supported in mobile apps, the Microsoft Edge browser, and other Chrome-based browsers.

Gemini (replaced Bard) - Gemini 1.0 free with a Google account; Gemini Advanced has a monthly fee.
Developed by Google
Connected to the Internet 

Claude 2 - free with account sign-up; Claude Pro has a monthly fee. 
Developed by Anthropic using their own model. 
System trained to be reliable and safe by using a Constitutional AI method.
Not connected to the Internet. Trained on data through December 2022, but may know some events into early 2023.

Perplexity AI - free with account sign-up needed to use GPT-4 model; also has a paid Pro version
Developed by Perplexity and functions as a chatbot-style search engine.
Connected to the Internet

Uses and Limitations

Ethical Questions:

  • How can you use AI tools and maintain academic integrity (including avoiding plagiarism)? 
  • Are AI tools impacting your education? Do they undermine your opportunity to learn or do they enhance your understanding?
  • Are AI tools providing biased responses? 

Generative AI can be useful for:

  • Developing ideas for a topic and identifying related concepts.
  • Suggesting which library databases might be useful for finding sources, and which keywords or search strategies to try when searching those other databases. (You can also get human help with all of these tasks and more from the Clark Library!)
  • Providing suggestions for improving writing. (You can also get human help with writing from the University's Writing Center!)
  • Creating translations and asking questions in another language.
  • Assisting with computer coding tasks. 

Limitations of current generative AI:

  • Reliability: They can't assess the accuracy or logical consistency of the text they generate. They can make up facts and credible-looking sources, complete with citations to nonexistent books and articles. This phenomenon is often referred to as a "hallucination" or "confabulation."
  • Bias: They perpetuate systemic biases. They are trained on datasets scraped from the Internet, which includes all the racist, sexist, ableist, and otherwise discriminatory language and images found there. 
  • Legal Violations: They can infringe on copyright and intellectual property.

What can you do? 

  • Develop your fact-checking skills so you can spot and correct errors that generative AI tools might make. Clark Library staff can help
  • Verify citations and sources provided by generative AI tools. Not sure how? Ask your helpful Clark Library team!
  • Develop depth of knowledge in your discipline or areas of interest so you can identify erroneous or biased information.
  • Ask other human experts like your professors or teaching assistants.
  • In general, learn more about the tech tools you use. Find out how they are trained, their purpose, and their limitations.

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