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University of Portland Clark Library

SOC / SW 214: Research Methods: Types of Sources

Popular Sources

Publications written in non-technical language for a general audience.

  • Authors are journalists or freelance writers.
  • Sources of information are mentioned within the text, but not cited. 

Examples: magazine and newspaper articles, popular nonfiction books, blog posts.


Scholarly Sources

Publications written by experts for an expert audience. 

  • Most scholarly papers undergo peer review before they are published as a journal article.
  • Sources are cited and listed in references at the end of the paper.

Examples: journal articles, scholarly books, conference papers.

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