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Publications written in non-technical language for a general audience.
- Authors are journalists or freelance writers.
- Sources of information are mentioned within the text, but not cited.
Examples: magazine and newspaper articles, popular nonfiction books, blog posts.
Journal Articles: Research vs. Reviews
- present study findings
- are written by the people who did the research
- have methods and results sections
Barker, E. T., Howard, A. L., Galambos, N. L., & Wrosch, C. (2016). Tracking affect and academic success across university: Happy students benefit from bouts of negative mood. Developmental Psychology, 52(12), 2022-2030. doi:10.1037/dev0000231
Flynn, D. M., & MacLeod, S. (2015). Determinants of happiness in undergraduate university students. College Student Journal, 49(3), 452-460.
- summarize and discuss findings from many studies (also known as a literature review)
- are written by people who read the studies
- do not have methods and results sections (with the exception of systematic reviews) (example)
- Tip: do not confuse these with book review articles (example)
Oishi, S., & Gilbert, E. A. (2016). Current and future directions in culture and happiness research. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 54–58. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.005
Suldo, S. M., Riley, K. N., & Shaffer, E. J. (2006). Academic correlates of children and adolescents' life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 27(5), 567-582. doi:10.1177/0143034306073411
Publications written by experts for an expert audience.
- Most scholarly papers undergo peer review before they are published as a journal article.
- Sources are cited and listed in references at the end of the paper.
Examples: journal articles, scholarly books, conference papers.
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