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University of Portland Clark Library

APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: How to Cite: Other

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Below is a link to an APA sample paper that contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.

Tips

Author

On sites where items are posted under user names but not necessarily proper names, enter the user name where you would normally put the author's name. Author in this case will be the main creator(s) for the item you are citing.

Creator information may often be found under a section called "About" for some types of social media, however this is not always standard.

Date

Most items will provide a date they were posted. The standard format for the date is Year, Month Day.

If only part of the date is provided, post what you have such as the year and skip the rest of the date.

If no date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date.

In-Text Citation or References List

Handouts distributed in class and presentation slides such as Powerpoint should be cited both in-text and on the References list.

Your own notes from lectures are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list.

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Website Name. URL.

Example

Dobbs, D. (2012, June 13). Fun in cities: Feature, not bug. Wired. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/06/fun-in-cities-feature-not-bug/

Note: If the blog author's real name is not provided, use their username instead.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, Section Heading section if given)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

Note: This blog post has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Conference Paper

In Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year). Title of paper: Subtitle if given. In Editor (Ed.), Paper presented at Title of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example

Hayes, R. & Murray, I. (2004). Consumers and product prices. In P. D.  Garcia, Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference on Business Management: Industry Trends (pp. 7-10). Detroit, MI: Craig. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Hayes & Murray, 2004)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Hayes & Murray, 2004, p. 7)

 

Online

Author's last name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of paper. Paper presented at Title of Conference. http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000

Example

Stevens, K. L. (2004, December 6). Online marketing. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference on Business Management: Industry Trends. doi:10.1024/LR.1205.208 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Stevens, 2004)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Stevens, 2004)

Class Handouts

Class handouts from Moodle:

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout Was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. Moodle@UP. https://learning.up.edu

Example

Magowan, A. (2013). Career resources at the library [Class handout]. Moodle@UP. https://learning.up.edu

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Magowan, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Magowan, 2013, p. 2)


Class handouts in Print:

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout Was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. Name of College, Course code.

Example

Wood, D. (2013). Laboratory safety overview [Class handout]. Columbia College, BIO173.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Wood, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Wood, 2013, p. 1)

Dissertations

Dissertation from Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation: Subtitle if given. (Publication No. #) [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.

Example

Smith, J. A. (2017). A bridge to neuroeducation: A qualitative study of perceptions of educators of adult learners. (Publication No. 10288085) [Doctoral dissertation, Capella University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Smith, 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Smith, 2017, p. 25)


Dissertation Abstract

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of dissertation: Subtitle if given. Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume Number, Page Numbers.

Example

Brooks, M. P. (2008). The history of St. Joseph School and challenges of catholic education in Oregon. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69, 2184–2185.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Brooks, 2008)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Brooks, 2008, p. 2184)

ERIC Document

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle if given  (ERIC document number). Database Name.

Example

Kubota, K. (2007). “Soaking” model for learning: Analyzing Japanese learning/teaching process from a socio-historical perspective (ED498566). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498566.pdf

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Kubota, 2007)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Kubota, 2007, p. 5)

Image

If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list. If the information is part of another format, for example a book, cite the work it came from. If you are only making a passing reference to a well known image, you would not have to cite it, e.g. describing someone as having a Mona Lisa smile.

Image from a Website 

Artist Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Description]. Website Name. URL

Example

Irish, J. (2019). Sequoia national park [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Irish, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Irish, 2019)

Note: This online image has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.


Image from a Book

Artist Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Date work created). Work Title [Description]. Name of Individual or Institution Which Owns Work, Location. In Book title. By Author name. Publisher Name. Page Number.

Example

Cassatt, M. (1889). Mother and child [Painting]. Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, KS. In American Painting,1560-1913. By J. Pearce. McGraw. Slide 22.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Cassatt, 1889)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Cassatt, 1889, Slide 22)


Image from a Library Database

Artist Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Date created). Work Title [Description]. Name of Individual or  Institution Which Owns Work. Name of library database. 

Example

Monet, C. (1878). The Parc Monceau [Painting]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Artstor.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Monet, 1878)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Monet, 1878)

Note: This online image has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Instrument

Example

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-II. Harcourt Brace.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, p. 11)

Example

Gatehouse, S., & Noble, W. (2004). The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). International Journal of Audiology 43, 1499-2027. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Gatehouse & Noble, 2004)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Gatehouse & Noble, 2004, p. 1515)

Lecture Notes (taken by a student or otherwise not public)

Note: Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.

(First Initial of Faculty Who Gave Lecture. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year lecture took place)

Example

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2012)

Example

Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J.D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2012).

Lippincott Advisor (7th ed)

Web site:

Title of article. (Year, Month Date of latest update). Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved Date, URL

Note: include "Retrieved" followed by the date for web pages that may be updated over time and that are not archived

Example

Anemia (aplastic). (2019, July 12). Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved October 17, 2019, https://advisor.lww.com/lna/document.do?bid=4&did=791392

In-Text Paraphrase

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

In-Text Quote

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

Note: Because online resources typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

 

Lippincott Advisor mobile app:

Title of article. (Year, Month Date of latest update). Lippincott Advisor [Mobile app]. Retrieved Date, https://advisor.lww.com/

Example

Anemia (aplastic). (2019, July 12). Lippincott Advisor [Mobile app]. Retrieved October 17, 2019, https://advisor.lww.com/

In-Text Paraphrase

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

In-Text Quote

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

Note: Because mobile apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Mobile Application Software (App)

Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given (Year current version of the application was released). Name of application (Version number if given) [Mobile app]. Publisher Name or App Store. URL application was downloaded from.

Example

National Geographic Society (2012). National parks by National Geographic (Version 1.2) [Mobile app]. App Store. http://www.apple.com/itunes/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Natural Medicines (online monograph)

Example

Natural Medicines. (2015). Guided Imagery [Monograph]. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ health-wellness/professional.aspx?productid=1238

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Natural Medicines, 2015)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Natural Medicines, 2015)

Note: Because online monographs from Natural Medicines typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Note: Nothing is italicized in this type of citation

Podcasts

Host/Executive Producer's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given [Audio podcast]. Title of Podcast. URL

Example

Rogers, S. (Host). (2012, June 18). Richard Wagamese: Children's book panel [Audio podcast]. The Next Chapter. http://www.cbc.ca/thenextchapter/episode/2012/06/18/richard-wagamese-bookworm-childrens-book-panel/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Host/Executive Producer's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Host/Executive Producer's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

PowerPoint Slides

PowerPoint Slides from Moodle

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Moodle@UP. https://learning.up.edu

Example

Graham, J. (2013). Introduction: Jean Watson [PowerPoint presentation]. Moodle@UP. https://learning.up.edu

Note: The first letter of the word Watson is capitalized as it is part of a person's name.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Graham, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instuctor's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example (Graham, 2013, slide 6)

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.


PowerPoint Slides from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Name of Website. URL

Example

Kunka, J.L. (n.d.). Conquering the comma [PowerPoint presentation]. Purdue University Writing Lab Website. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/conquering_the_comma_presentation.html

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Kunka, n.d.)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example: (Kunka, n.d., slide 10)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

Review of Book, Play, Movie, Poem, etc.

You can find reviews in multiple source types (newspapers, magazines, journals, etc.); please see elsewhere on this guide for guidance on creating a citation for a specific source. The below citation example is for a play review that appeared on a newspaper website.

This template is for a review in general:

Author's Last Name, First Name. (Date of Publication). Title of review: Subtitle if any. [Review of Play (Book, Movie, etc.) Title, by Playwright (Author, Director, etc.)]. Name of PeriodicalVolume(Issue), p. Page number(s). 

Note: Titles of plays, books, and movies are italicized as shown here; do not italicize titles of articles, poems, and short stories. Instead, put them in quotation marks, e.g., Review of "The Revenant," by Billy Collins.

Note: If the author's name is not listed, begin the citation with the title of the article.

Works Cited List Example

Brantley, Ben. (2016). Dear audiences of 'tiny beautiful things,' prepare to cry. [Review of Tiny Beautiful Things, by Nia Vardalos]. New York Times, www.nytimes.com/2016/12/07/theater/tiny-beautiful-things-review.html. 

In-Text Citation Example

Following guidance for a newspaper article from a website: (Review Author's Last Name)

(Brantley)

Note: If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks, e.g. ("Dear Audiences").


Statista

Source of data. (Year, Month Day). Title of document: Subtitle if given. Statista. URL

Example

National Park Service. (2019, May 13). Most visited national parks in the United States in 2018. Statista. https://www-statista-com.ezproxy-eres.up.edu/statistics/378920/most-visited-national-parks-us/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Source of data, Year)

Example: (National Park Service, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Source of data, Year)

Example: (National Park Service, 2019)

Twitter (Tweets)

Author's Last Name, First Name Initial. Second Name Initial if Given. [@user name]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). Text of post up to the first 20 words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL of tweet

Example

rickmercer. (2010, May 3). The only thing i have achieved today is ignoring my list. And that's not on the list [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/RICKMERCER

Note: Write out the actual text of the post in the citation and keep spelling and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (rickmercer, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (rickmercer, 2010)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

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