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APA Style (6th Edition) Citation Guide: How to Cite: Other

Formatting

Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Below is a link to an APA sample paper that contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.

Tips

Author

On sites where items are posted under user names but not necessarily proper names, enter the user name where you would normally put the author's name. Author in this case will be the main creator(s) for the item you are citing.

Creator information may often be found under a section called "About" for some types of social media, however this is not always standard.

Date

Most items will provide a date they were posted. The standard format for the date is Year, Month Day.

If only part of the date is provided, post what you have such as the year and skip the rest of the date.

If no date is provided, use the initials n.d. where you would normally put the date.

In-Text Citation or References List

Handouts distributed in class and presentation slides such as Powerpoint should be cited both in-text and on the References list.

Your own notes from lectures are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list.

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post [Web log post]. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Dobbs, D. (2012, June 13). Fun in cities: Feature, not bug [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/06/fun-in-cities-feature-not-bug/

Note: If the blog author's real name is not provided, use their username instead.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, Section Heading section if given)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

Note: This blog post has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Class Handouts

Class handouts from Moodle:

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout Was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. Retrieved from Moodle.

Example

Magowan, A. (2013). Career resources at the library [Class handout]. Retrieved from Moodle.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Magowan, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Magowan, 2013, p. 2)


Class handouts in Print:

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Handout Was Created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle if any [Class handout]. City Course is Located in, BC: Columbia College, Course code.

Example

Wood, D. (2013). Laboratory safety overview [Class handout]. Vancouver, BC: Columbia College, BIO173.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Wood, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Wood, 2013, p. 1)

ERIC Document

Example

Kubota, K. (2007). “Soaking” model for learning: Analyzing Japanese learning/teaching process from a socio-historical perspective. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED498566)

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: In-text: (Kubota, 2007)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: In-text: (Kubota, 2007, p. 5)

Image

If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list. If the information is part of another format, for example a book, cite the work it came from. If you are only making a passing reference to a well known image, you would not have to cite it, e.g. describing someone as having a Mona Lisa smile.

Image from a Website 

Artist Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format]. Retrieved from URL.

Example

Irish, J. (2019). Sequoia national park. [Photograph]. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Irish, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Irish, 2019)

Note: This online image has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.


Image from a Book

Artist Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Date work created). Work Title. [Format]. Name of Individual or Institution Which Owns Work, Location. Book title. By Author name. City, State: Publisher. Page Number.

Example

Cassatt, M. (1889). Mother and Child. [Painting]. Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, KS. American Painting,1560-1913. By John Pearce, New York, NY: McGraw, 1964, Slide 22.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Cassatt, 1889)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Cassatt, 1889, Slide 22)


Image from a Library Database

Artist Last Name, First & Middle Initials. (Date created). Work Title. Name of Individual or  Institution Which Owns Work, Location. Retrieved from Name of library database. 

Example

Monet, C. (1878). The Parc Monceau. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Retrieved from Artstor.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Monet, 1878)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Monet, 1878)

Note: This online image has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Instrument

Example

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Brace.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, p. 11)

Example

Gatehouse, S., & Noble, W. (2004). The Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ). International Journal of Audiology 43, 1499-2027. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Gatehouse & Noble, 2004)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Gatehouse & Noble, 2004, p. 1515)

Lecture Notes (taken by a student or otherwise not public)

Note: Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.

(First Initial of Faculty Who Gave Lecture. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year lecture took place)

Example

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2012)

Example

Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J.D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2012).

Lippincott Advisor

Web site:

Title of article. (Year, Month Date of latest update). Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved Date, from URL

Example

Anemia (aplastic). (2019, July 12). Lippincott Advisor. Retrieved from https://advisor.lww.com/lna/document.do?bid=4&did=791392

In-Text Paraphrase

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

In-Text Quote

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

Note: Because online resources typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

 

Lippincott Advisor mobile app:

Title of article. (Year, Month Date of latest update). Lippincott Advisor [Mobile application software]. Retrieved Date, from https://advisor.lww.com/

Example

Anemia (aplastic). (2019, July 12). Lippincott Advisor [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from https://advisor.lww.com/

In-Text Paraphrase

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

In-Text Quote

("First word or two of article title," Year)

Example: ("Anemia (aplastic)," 2019)

Note: Because mobile apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Mobile Application Software (App)

Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given (Year current version of the application was released). Name of application (Version version number if given) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from URL application was downloaded from.

Note: Nothing is italicized in this type of citation

Example

National Geographic Society (2012). National parks by National Geographic (Version 1.2) [Mobile application software]. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/itunes/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Natural Medicines (online monograph)

Example

Natural Medicines. (2015). Guided Imagery [Monograph]. Retrieved from https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/ health-wellness/professional.aspx?productid=1238

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year)

Example: (Natural Medicines, 2015)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year)

Example: (Natural Medicines, 2015)

Note: Because online monographs from Natural Medicines typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Note: Nothing is italicized in this type of citation

Podcasts

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given [Audio podcast]. Title of Podcast. Retrieved from URL

Example

Rogers, S. (Host). (2012, June 18). Richard Wagamese: Children's book panel [Audio podcast]. The Next Chapter. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/thenextchapter/episode/2012/06/18/richard-wagamese-bookworm-childrens-book-panel/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Rogers, 2012)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

PowerPoint Slides

PowerPoint Slides from Moodle

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Moodle.

Example

Graham, J. (2013). Introduction: Jean Watson [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Moodle.

Note: The first letter of the word Watson is capitalized as it is part of a person's name.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Graham, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Instuctor's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example (Graham, 2013, slide 6)

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.


PowerPoint Slides from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Name of Website if given: URL

Example

Kunka, J.L. (n.d.). Conquering the comma [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from Purdue University Writing Lab Website: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/punctuation/conquering_the_comma_presentation.html

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Kunka, n.d.)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example: (Kunka, n.d., slide 10)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

Twitter (Tweets)

Twitter user name. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). Text of post [Twitter post]. Retrieved fromTwitter Account's URL

Example

rickmercer. (2010, May 3). The only thing i have achieved today is ignoring my list. And that's not on the list [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/RICKMERCER

Note: Write out the actual text of the post in the citation and keep spelling and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (rickmercer, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (rickmercer, 2010)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

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