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University of Portland Clark Library

APA Style (7th Edition) Citation Guide: Secondary Sources


Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Below is a link to an APA sample paper that contains instructions about how to format a hanging indent in a paper.

Secondary Sources

If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase then write "as cited in" the secondary source in parentheses. List only the secondary source in your reference list.

Example of in-text citation:

According to a study by Smith (as cited in Hanrahan, et al., 2005)...

Example of Reference list citation:

Hanrahan, P., McCoy, M. L., Cloninger, L., Dincin, J., Zeitz, M. A., Simpatico, T. A., & Dincin, J. (2005). The Mothers’ Project for homeless mothers with mental illnesses and their children: A pilot study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28(3), 291-294. | 503.943.7111 or 800.841.8261 | 5000 N. Willamette Blvd., Portland, OR 97203-5798
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